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The meaning of life, the universe, and everything. Universal digital peace is declared over our galaxy. Logo Fabernovel Tagline Fabernovel. Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed, and he became a passionate supporter of republicanism ; his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and the artistic trends of his time.
His legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency. Hugo's childhood was a period of national political turmoil. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of the French two years after Hugo's birth, and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his 13th birthday. The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a high-ranking officer in Napoleon's army until he failed in Spain one of the reasons why his name is not present on the Arc de Triomphe.
Since Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels. On a childhood family trip to Naples , Hugo saw the vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the magnificently blue Mediterranean, and Rome during its festivities. They stayed in Naples for a few months and then headed back to Paris. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing.
As a result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect her passionate devotion to both King and Faith. It was only later, during the events leading up to France's Revolution , that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought. On 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier , pulled down by her heavy skirts when a boat overturned. Her young husband also died trying to save her. I will see that instant until I die, that instant—too much for tears! I don't have her any more!
He wrote many poems afterwards about his daughter's life and death, and at least one biographer claims he never completely recovered from it. After leaving France, Hugo lived in Brussels briefly in , before moving to the Channel Islands , first to Jersey — and then to the smaller island of Guernsey in , where he stayed until Napoleon III's fall from power in Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in , under which Hugo could have safely returned to France, the author stayed in exile, only returning when Napoleon III was forced from power as a result of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in After the Siege of Paris from to , Hugo lived again in Guernsey from to , before finally returning to France for the remainder of his life.
Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage Han d'Islande , , and his second three years later Bug-Jargal , In his youth, Hugo resolved to be " Chateaubriand or nothing", and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor in many ways.
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Like Chateaubriand , Hugo furthered the cause of Romanticism, became involved in politics though mostly as a champion of Republicanism , and was forced into exile due to his political stances. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervour and fluency, the collection that followed four years later in Odes et Ballades revealed Hugo to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative song.
Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction was first published in February by Charles Gosselin without the author's name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. Claude Gueux , a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France.
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Hugo became the figurehead of the Romantic literary movement with the plays Cromwell and Hernani One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame , which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved.
Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel, as evidenced in a letter he wrote to his publisher, Albert Lacroix, on 23 March , "My conviction is that this book is going to be one of the peaks, if not the crowning point of my work. The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch.
It also initially published only the first part of the novel "Fantine" , which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society. The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel; Taine found it insincere, Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity, Gustave Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness", the Goncourt brothers lambasted its artificiality, and Baudelaire — despite giving favourable reviews in newspapers — castigated it in private as "repulsive and inept".
Today, the novel remains his most well-known work. It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema, television, and stage shows. An apocryphal tale  about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking? The publisher replied with a single!
Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey , where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo tells of a man who attempts to win the approval of his beloved's father by rescuing his ship, intentionally marooned by its captain who hopes to escape with a treasure of money it is transporting, through an exhausting battle of human engineering against the force of the sea and a battle against an almost mythical beast of the sea, a giant squid. Superficially an adventure, one of Hugo's biographers calls it a "metaphor for the 19th century—technical progress, creative genius and hard work overcoming the immanent evil of the material world.
The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid pieuvre , also sometimes applied to octopus was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book. Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit The Man Who Laughs , which was published in and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. His last novel, Quatre-vingt-treize Ninety-Three , published in , dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels.
He was elevated to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe in and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France , where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice , and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. In , he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty.
Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children. Hugo's advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally.
Victor Hugo - Wikipedia
When Louis Napoleon Napoleon III seized complete power in , establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. He relocated to Brussels , then Jersey , from which he was expelled for supporting a Jersey newspaper that had criticised Queen Victoria and finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port , Guernsey , where he would live in exile from October until The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there.
Like most of his contemporaries, Victor Hugo held colonialist views towards Africans. In a speech delivered on 18 May , he declared that the Mediterranean Sea formed a natural divide between " ultimate civilisation and […] utter barbarism," adding "God offers Africa to Europe.
Take it," in order to civilise its indigenous inhabitants. This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained strangely silent on the Algerian issue. He knew about the atrocities committed by the French Army during the French conquest of Algeria as evidenced by his diary  but he never denounced them publicly.
A modern reader may also feel puzzled, to say the least, at the meaning of these lines from the conclusion to Le Rhin, chapter 17,  published in , twelve years after French troops landed near Algiers.
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What France lacks in Algiers is a little barbarity. The Turks [ The first thing that strikes savages is not reason but strength. What France lacks, England has it; Russia too. Algeria too harshly conquered, and, as in the case of India by the English, with more barbarism than civilization. Before being exiled he never denounced slavery, and no trace of its abolition is to be found in the 27 April entry of his detailed diary. On the other hand, Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist, diarist, and member of Parliament.
The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution; several entries of Things Seen Choses vues , the diary he kept between and , convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence;  on 15 September , seven months after the Revolution of , he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded, "You have overthrown the throne. His complete archives published by Pauvert show also that he wrote a letter asking the United States government, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spare John Brown's life, but the letter arrived after Brown was executed.
Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in , Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in , where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian Army in , famously eating animals given to him by the Paris Zoo.
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As the siege continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to "eating the unknown". During the Paris Commune — the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March and was toppled on 28 May — Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides. On 9 April, he wrote in his diary, "In short, this Commune is as idiotic as the National Assembly is ferocious. From both sides, folly.
Hang him! Death to the scoundrel! Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war",  was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. He expounded his views on the subject in a speech he delivered during the International Peace Congress which took place in Paris in The conference helped establish Hugo as a prominent public speaker and sparked his international fame, and promoted the idea of the "United States of Europe".